Colour

Colour is about communicating, a subjective thing.  It is not only about the overall look, there is the dilemma of sunny days vs overcast sky in a scene, using colour to enhance different environments and geographies, creating juxtaposition between scenes.  Might be a warm and colourful film with the need to feel the environment, like the cold of the snow.

The colour graders can be embedded in the production process from production design, develop looks, lighting, compositing and output.  Using many EXR passes, including lighting in order to have a high degree of manipulation and attention to massive amounts of detail.  Start the grading in HDR wide gamut and then step back down for the deliverables.

Colour is either subtractive, where all the colours are absorbed and only black is reflected, such as lighting models in a 3D environment, or additive, where all colours are equally mixed together to form white, such as a computer monitor.

Hue is the tint of the colour such as red, green or blue

Saturation is how much of that tint is part of the colour, higher values will give deeper colour.

Value is the brightness from black to white with higher values being brighter.

Color Palettes From Famous Movies Show How Colors Set The Mood Of A Film

Alexis Van Hurkman – Creating and Finessing

Adobe Cool or Just Common? Blue is the Web’s Most Popular Colour

Color Science, Explained (Part 1) Adobe By Bronwyn Lewis 07.20.15 Pro Video Coalition

A Short History of Color in Film and Television

The beginning of the photochemical film process came in the form of still photography at the end of the first quarter of the 19th century (around 1826). It would be another fifty years before film began to move (the 1890’s) and another 30 or so years for television to begin its birthing process (1926). All of them were originally brought to you in spectacular monochrome.

The Electronic Side of Color Media

Film color evolved over the years from hand painting directly on the film frames to various photochemical processes. At first glance, it would seem color video burst on the scene fully formed in December, 1953.

10 Color Theory Basics Everyone Should Know

Most of us aren’t interior designers by trade and that’s okay. Whether you think of interior design as an enjoyable hobby or a necessary evil that helps keep your home looking presentable, sometimes it can be tough to understand the industry lingo. After all, how often do you hear about Tertiary Colors, anyway?

COLOUR  CORRECTION

How to Use and Read the Four Primary Video Scopes

When you’re color correcting and grading, it’s important to accurately assess your video signal. You need to know if you’re crushing the blacks in that night shot, clipping the whites in those clouds, and what exact hue and saturation that logo is. Your monitor may not be properly calibrated, so that can’t be trusted, and our eyes adapt to the image, so we can’t trust them either

PERSISTENCE of  VISION

Understanding Color

RED GIANT   delivers Production-proven special effects tools for digital video & film professionals. Plug-ins built for Adobe After Effects, Premiere, Avid, Final Cut …

Visual Storytelling Workshop with Simon Walker who explored how colour grading techniques are used in film and showed practical applications of how to create moods, suggest genres, and inform the audience of the motivations of on-screen protagonists – all utilising Red Giant’s Color Suite of plug-ins.

He included some practical ways to improve the look of digital video, polish and enhance motion graphics sequences, showcasing strategies for reducing pixelation and noise and production techniques for making your video look as good as possible, as well as how to apply fast After Effects style post-production effects from your editing timeline, using Red Giant’s Universe suite of Plug-ins.

  • Explore how colour grading techniques are used in film
  • Learn how to create moods, suggest genres, and inform the audience of the motivations of on-screen protagonists, using Red Giant’s Color Suite of plug-ins
  • Get practical ways to improve the look of digital video, polish and enhance motion graphics sequences

Why do we tells stories with colour, colour correcting, how are colour grading techniques are used in films, do we need all that dialogue or do we save money shooting at a particular time of day. A shot may be 2 to 4 seconds and it can be shorter with colour telling the story. The audience anticipate what is going on in a particular shot and colour can communicate the story making the shot shorter.

Think about the colour wheel, rgb light and when replacing a colour you move the opposite or complementary colour.

We cannot trust our eyes as our brains reinterpret some of the colour. With complementary colours that work together our eyes are more attracted to the image, more pleasing for the audience.

Visually when we look at a blue dot on white paper for long enough then look at a blank white page we will see the complementary colour.

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two circles the same size

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surrounding colours change other colours

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the brown dots shown are the same colour the shadow and neighbouring colours affects the colour

Colour changes throughout the day, during a story and how it is interpret.

How do our eyes see colour, in low light conditions our eyes see different colours. With the light becoming less and less saturated there is less movement and everything goes black and white. The brain is saying there is not enough light to interpret colour and puts the light into interpreting detail. We need to factor these things into grading to be convincing to the audience.

Colour has different physical wave lengths with blue being shorter than red and green.

matrix-color-4

Consider orange and teal in movies. In the Matrix where different locations or environments are associated with different colours and temperatures.  There is the real world and the computer world which is more stylised which we get used to over the duration of the film.

What do the colours mean, they are associated with different locations giving more meaning. We make the different colours and manipulate the colour to tell the story. How can it change the story, what are they thinking, communicating with colour. This can change, there are no rules, do you craft every pixel or use presets or somewhere in between.

The Cinematography of “The Matrix” part 3/3 – the colour palette

Magic Bullets Looks

Every frame being designed to have the audience look at a particular thing in the image. Consider increasing highlights and decreasing shadows.

When the contrast is increased the rgb colour space gets a perceived saturated change looking unnatural. Could put the shadows to blue, reduce saturation and use a vignette.

Vignette – cause the audience to look at a particular thing in every frame, attention getting device.

Why is the sky blue? Different wavelengths of light are scattered by the atmosphere and the blue wavelength is shorter than the others and scattered differently. This is the physics of the blue sky and when we look up there is more atmosphere at the horizon it is whiter or lighter.  The blue wavelength and it is scattered differently by the atmosphere, it becomes a gradient.

Images can be enhanced with grading and when it is the wrong colour the audience might not know what it is though they recognise something isn’t quite right.

Distance including city landscapes, the distant buildings have a more blue/purple colour which is an optical illusion. To enhance space or depth in the image, a non-stereosciopie  image, one way to put them in the distance is with more blue with objects in the foreground with less blue.  Warm colours project forward, cool colours recede, the colour of light depends on depth perception. For white balance outside light is slightly blue and inside light is slightly yellow. This also happens in nature.

The physics of the colour of light only changes int he highlights, brightest forms of light. Consider colour correcting or changing in the highlights and when the mid-tones start to change it begins to take on a more stylised mode.

Reduced mid-tones affects the ambient light, could become earlier morning or later in the day as there is less ambient light then.  The colours look saturated when working in rub colour space and maybe increase the contract to reduce the saturation and it becomes more realistic. We see blue more readily as it has a shorter wave length. For the later time of day we see more blue, maybe add some blue into the highlights and make the shadows darker, for it to look more like the evening. Sometimes is it cheaper to shoot during the day, there is more light and introduces less noise in the well lit footage. Then colour grade later for the change of time of day rather than low light conditions

There is the golden hour, in photography, or the magic hour, is a period shortly after sunrise or before sunset during which daylight is redder and softer compared to when the Sun is higher in the sky. The blue hour, or sweet light is the twilight each morning and evening when the sun is a significant distance below the horizon and the residual, indirect sunlight takes on a predominantly blue hue. This effect is caused by the relative diffusability of short blue wavelengths of light versus the longer red wavelengths. During the blue “hour” (typically the period is about 40 minutes in length), red light passes straight into space while blue light is scattered in the atmosphere and therefore reaches the earth’s surface.  When the sun is below the horizon there is less ambient light and changes how the wave lengths are being filtered through the atmosphere.

What colour is snow, how it is changed in the Game of Thrones? 

It is blue, higher contrast and the shadows are darker.

Colour is contextual, dependent on what is happening in a scene and movies use colour for different purposes such as yellow for danger in an environment and blue in the head quarters office which are safe. Different locations have different themes.

Red: attracting attention, strong, positive, drama

Yellow: happy, highly visible, possessive, good mixed with black such as wasp, call someone yellow

Orange: mix of read and yellow, more friendly, politics, conformist, happy

Blue: opposite to political, conservative, cold, open, emotionally detached, safe, not upset the client, optimistic

Green: nature, calm, relief, evil,nausea, because the wizard of oz was green now all witches are green, traffic light (isn’t red)

Purple: pompous, femininity, mixes with yellow, warmth, romance

Black and White: mixer colours, black neutral, mourning, depression, goes with red

White: sterile

Look at the colour of trailers and see if you can tell what kind of movies they are e.g. blue for sic-fi, green for horror, orange for comedy.

How do some movies use colour?

Skyfall uses warm colours in turkey, yellow in the dangerous environment, the hot location and cool in the head quarters. What is the colour of the coat in the cold location and then the colour of clothing in the head quarters is blue, they are emotional temperatures. They are telling an emotional story and we cannot always tell these are different locations so colours can be used to illustrate this in movies.

In the film ‘House of Cards’, the different locations, the White House is not overly lit, greyish, neutral and two characters have different relationships having general conversations.  In the restaurant the two characters are having another conversation, the background is warm, they have with shirts but is at odds with what they are talking about, they are not the best of friends.

images

Are the lamps white or yellow, are they best friends?  The set design sets this up, it could be a costume moment. For clinical thinking the lamps are white and the environment is sterile.  What is this information telling the audience?

images-1Increasing contrast as well as saturation it makes it more dynamic, the image is more attractive to look at. If there is low contrast this changes the perception of what is happening.

The low contrast evokes a sense of intimacy, the telling of a specific story, a mystery.  The painter stick to bring our attention to small details will sometimes put small bits of colour flying through, almost irrelevant and attracting our eyes, complementary colour on different corners.

Low contrast and grain for mystery, high contrast is in action movies.

Red Giant Plot Device

Red Giant’s Mojo for colouring effect such as warming up actors skin tones, adding a cool blue to the backgrounds and shadows, adding drama, or smoothing contrast.

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Particular films have their colours such as Sci-fi films, the shadows and midtowns are teal/blue. Skin colour or tones have some element of orange giving a contrast of skin to the bluish background. The buildings and gloves are coloured blue with the balancing colours and throw these colours into the shots at certain points

There are no rules, is his skin tone accurate?

Used comic book colours

Why is green bad? At what point in the movie do we know it is a horror film. ‘Drag Me To Hell’ goes from neutral to green in the car park. Do white lights project a green background and skin tones?

This is not only to do with movies, the great artists have done it, Rembrandt and Rubens. The used the strong contrasts of dark and light, chiaroscuro. The detail on the face and hands with the viewer being attracted to the areas they wanted them to look at. There is fine brush detail in these areas with the use of white and the eyes are in shadow. Rembrandt was a humanist and wanted to bring out their story, to make you consider what his is thinking or hiding, using a vignette.

1652 Self-Portrait oil on canvas 112 x 81.5 cm Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

RubensSamsonAndDelilahCa1610LondonNG350

rubens – samson and delilah

The soldiers are lit, there is the use of rich colours of purple and red and the eyes are drawn across the picture. The attention is focused onto different areas.

rubens-susannafourment

nighthawks

hopper – nighthawks

Hopper uses texture, a gritty feel and has oranges and greens.

These techniques are hundreds of years old

Red Giant Universe

Teal and Orange – Hollywood, Please Stop the Madness

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